What is Routing Information Protocol?

What is Routing Information Protocol?

What is Routing Information Protocol? RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is a distance vector routing protocol. It is also known as IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) used within AS (Autonomous System).

Here Distance is Hop counts (Or) Metric Value & Vector is Direction (In which the data is set to travel)
RIP is a standardized Distance Vector protocol, designed for use on smaller
networks. RIP was one of the first true Distance Vector routing protocols,
and is supported on a wide variety of systems.
RIP adheres to the following Distance Vector characteristics:
• RIP sends out periodic routing updates (every 30 seconds)
• RIP sends out the full routing table every periodic update
• RIP uses a form of distance as its metric (in this case, hopcount)
• RIP uses the Bellman-Ford Distance Vector algorithm to determine
the best “path” to a particular destination
Other characteristics of RIP include:
• RIP supports IP and IPX routing.
• RIP utilizes UDP port 520
• RIP routes have an administrative distance of 120.
• RIP has a maximum hop count of 15 hops.
Any network that is 16 hops away or more is considered unreachable to RIP,
thus the maximum diameter of the network is 15 hops. A metric of 16 hops
in RIP is considered a poison route or infinity metric.
If multiple paths exist to a particular destination, RIP will load balance
between those paths (by default, up to 4) only if the metric (hopcount) is
equal. RIP uses a round-robin system of load-balancing between equal
metric routes, which can lead to pinhole congestion.

For example,

When data is travelling from source to destination, RIP will choose the path with less hop counts irrespective of the kind of link it’s connected.

In the picture below as you can see Data is set to travel from R1 to R5 however, still it choose the upper path (via serial link) for data travel because the number of hop counts are less (Just 1).